Mexican Samples, Latino DNA: The Trajectory of a National Genome in Transnational Science

Emily Elizabeth Vasquez, Vivette García Deister

Abstract


Experts have widely promoted developing country investment in national genome projects in order to ensure their inclusion in medical genomic advances, to protect their genomes from foreign exploitation, and to foster their participation in a future genomics-based bioeconomy.  In this context, the Mexican federal government’s investments to establish the National Institute of Genomic Medicine in 2004, that institute’s subsequent efforts to map the “Mexican genome” between 2004 and 2009, and the passage of legislation in 2008 to protect Mexico’s “genomic sovereignty” drew attention as the most comprehensive national genomics program among the world’s emerging economies. Given the prominence of Mexico’s decision to pursue its “national genome” and to understand how this approach to science policy has unfolded with time, we track major developments in the field of genomic medicine in Mexico and the trajectory of the “Mexican genome” over the last decade.  Rather than the nation-state bound “Mexican genome,” we show that flexibility and ambiguity with regard to genomic identity has been instrumental amid the increasingly transnational and public-private nature of this scientific field. Over the last decade, Mexican samples have frequently been re-branded as the source of flexible, panethnic “Latino” or “Latin American” DNA.


Keywords


national genomes; genomic sovereignty; panethnicity; ambiguity; bioeconomy; Latin America

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abu El-Haj, Nadia. 2007. "The Genetic Reinscription of Race." Annual Review of Anthropology 36 (1):283-300. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120522.

Almaguer, Tomás. 2012. "Race, Racialization, and Latino Populations in the United States." In Racial formation in the twenty-first century, edited by Daniel Martinez HoSang, Oneka LaBennett and Laura Pulido, 143-161. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Appadurai, Arjun. 1986. The Social life of things: Commodities in cultural perspective. Edited by Arjun Appadurai. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Banco Inbursa. 2017. Banco Inbursa Informa sus Resultados Correspondientes al Segundo Trimestre de 2017 [Banco Inbursa Announces its Results Cooresponding to the Second Trimester of 2017]. Mexico City.

Benjamin, Ruha. 2009. "A Lab of Their Own: Genomic sovereignty as postcolonial science policy." Policy and Society 28 (4):341-355. doi: 10.1016/j.polsoc.2009.09.007.

Betancourt, Miguel. 2018. "Genómica y Enfermedades Crónicas." Primera Sesión Académica de la Maestría en Salud Pública, Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla, Puebla, México.

Birch, Kean, and David Tyfield. 2012. "Theorizing the Bioeconomy." Science, Technology, & Human Values 38 (3):299-327. doi: 10.1177/0162243912442398.

Bliss, Catherine. 2012. Race decoded: The genomic fight for social justice. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Bliss, Catherine. 2013. "The Marketization of Identity Politics." Sociology 47 (5):1011-1025. doi: 10.1177/0038038513495604.

Braine, Theresa. 2007. "Mexican billionaire invests millions in Latin American health." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85:574-575.

Broad Institute. 2010. "Mexico-US Collaboration Launched." https://www.broadinstitute.org/news/mexico-us-collaboration-launched.

Broad Institute. 2013. "New Genetic Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes Revealed." accessed October 1, 2017. https://www.broadinstitute.org/news/new-genetic-risk-factor-type-2-diabetes-revealed.

Burton, Elise K. 2018. "Narrating ethnicity and diversity in Middle Eastern national genome projects." Social Studies of Science 48 (5):762-786. doi: 10.1177/0306312718804888.

Busby, Helen, and Paul Martin. 2006. "Biobanks, national identity and imagined communities: The case of UK biobank." Science as Culture 15 (3):237-251. doi: 10.1080/09505430600890693.

Cámara de Diputados. 2008. "Proceso Legislativo - Decreto por el que se reforma la fracción V del artículo 100 y el artículo 461, y se adicionan los artículos 317 Bis y 317 Bis 1, todos de la Ley General de Salud." Diario Oficial de la Federación. http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/proceso/lx/101_DOF_14jul08.pdf.

Canal Diabetes. 2016. "Diabetes Prevent ayuda a conocer el riesgo de diabetes tipo 2." accessed 15 October 2017. http://www.canaldiabetes.com/diabetes-prevent/.

Carlos Slim Helú. 2013. "Mexico-US Genomics Partnership Launches

Second Phase." accessed October 15 2017. http://www.carlosslim.com/responsabilidad_slim_medicina_genomica_ing.html.

Chavez, Leo R. 2008. The Latino threat: Constructing immigrants, citizens, and the nation. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Coronel, Maribel R. 2012. Los Pasos de Slim en la Salud. El Economista. Accessed 15 April 2012.

Cruz Martínez, Ángeles. 2013. "Informan sobre prueba específica de predisposición a cáncer de mama." La Jornada, 25 September 2013, 38. http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2013/09/25/sociedad/038n3soc.

Cullell, Jon Martín. 2019. ¿Existe el ‘ADN mexicano’? El Pais. https://verne.elpais.com/verne/2019/01/19/mexico/1547866590_722415.html

Dávila, Arlene M. 2001. Latinos, Inc.: The marketing and making of a people. Berkeley: University of California Press.

de Vries, Jantina, Melodie Slabbert, and Michael S. Pepper. 2012. "Ethical, legal and social issues in the context of the planning stages of the Southern African Human Genome Programme." Medicine and law 31 (1):119-152.

Duster, Troy. 2005. "Race and Reification in Science." Science 307 (5712):1050-1051. doi: 10.2307/3840144.

Duster, Troy. 2015. "A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine." The British Journal of Sociology 66 (1):1-27. doi: 10.1111/1468-4446.12118.

Ecks, Stefan. 2005. "Pharmaceutical Citizenship: Antidepressant Marketing and the Promise of Demarginalization in India." Anthropology & Medicine 12 (3):239-254. doi: 10.1080/13648470500291360.

Epstein, Steven. 2009. Inclusion: The politics of difference in medical research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fortun, Michael. 2008. Promising genomics: Iceland and deCODE Genetics in a world of speculation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fujimura, Joan H., and R. Rajagopalan. 2011. "Different differences: the use of 'genetic ancestry' versus race in biomedical human genetic research." Soc Stud Sci 41 (1):5-30.

Fullwiley, Duana. 2007. "Race and Genetics: Attempts to Define the Relationship." BioSocieties 2 (2):221-237. doi: 10.1017/S1745855207005625.

Fullwiley, Duana. 2008. "The Biologistical Construction of Race: 'Admixture' Technology and the New Genetic Medicine." Social Studies of Science 38 (5):695-735. doi: 10.2307/25474605.

Fundación Carlos Slim. 2017. "Informe Annual." http://fundacion.eidos1.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/informe-resultados.pdf.

García Ramírez, Mónica. 2017. "Crean primera prueba que detecta diabetes en el ADN." Milenio, 26 January 2017. Accessed 15 October 2017. http://www.milenio.com/cultura/primera_prueba_diabetes-adn-incmnsz-expertos_mexicanos-celulas_epiteliales-milenio_0_891510852.html.

García-Deister, Vivette. 2014. "Laboratory Life of the Mexican Mestizo." In Mestizo Genomics: Race Mixture, Nation, and Science in Latin America, edited by Peter Wade, Carlos López-Beltrán, Eduardo Restrepo and Ricardo Ventura-Santos, 161-182. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Grupo Carso. 2017. "Consejo de Administración." accessed 15 October 2017. http://www.carso.com.mx/ES/gobierno-corporativo/Paginas/consejo-de-administracion.aspx.

Hardy, Billie-Jo, Beatrice Séguin, Federico Goodsaid, Gerardo Jimenez-Sanchez, Peter A. Singer, and Abdallah S. Daar. 2008. "The next steps for genomic medicine: challenges and opportunities for the developing world." Nat Rev Genet 9 (1):S23-S27.

Hinterberger, Amy, and Natalie Porter. 2015. "Genomic and Viral Sovereignty: Tethering the Materials of Global Biomedicine." Public Culture 27 (2 76):361-386. doi: 10.1215/08992363-2841904.

Hunt, Linda M., and Mary S. Megyesi. 2008. "The ambiguous meanings of the racial/ethnic categories routinely used in human genetics research." Social science & medicine (1982) 66 (2):349-361. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.08.034.

Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud. 2017. "Consejo Directivo." accessed 15 October 2017. http://www.salud.carlosslim.org/consejo-directivo/.

Jiménez Sanchez, Gerardo. 2002. "Oportunidades para la industria farmacéutica en el Instituto de Medicina Genómica de México." Gaceta Médica de México 138 (3):291-294.

Jiménez Sanchez, Gerardo. 2003a. "Developing a Platform for Genomic Medicine in Mexico." Science 300 (5617):295-296. doi: 10.2307/3834142.

Jiménez Sanchez, Gerardo. 2003b. "La medicina genómica como un instrumento estratégico en el desarrollo de México." Ciencia y Desarrollo 29 (172):33-35.

Jiménez Sanchez, Gerardo, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Alfredo Hidalgo, and

Santiago March. 2008. "Genomic medicine in Mexico: Initial steps and the road ahead." Genome Research 18 (8):1191-1198. doi: 10.1101/gr.065359.107.

Kahn, Jonathan. 2013. Race in a bottle: The story of BiDil and racialized medicine in a post-genomic age. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kent, Michael, Vivette García-Deister, Carlos López-Beltrán, Ricardo Ventura Santos, Ernesto Schwartz-Marín, and Peter Wade. 2015. "Building the genomic nation: ‘Homo Brasilis’ and the ‘Genoma Mexicano’ in comparative cultural perspective." Social Studies of Science 45 (6):839-861. doi: 10.1177/0306312715611262.

Koenig, Barbara A., Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, and Sarah S. Richardson, eds. 2008. Revisiting race in a genomic age. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Leonelli, Sabina. 2016. Data-centric biology: A philosophical study. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Liu, Jennifer A. 2010. "Maing Taiwanese (Stem Cells): Identity, Genetics, and Hybridity." In Asian biotech: Ethics and communities of fate, edited by Aihwa Ong and Nancy N. Chen, 239-262. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Lopez-Beltran, Carlos, and Vivette García-Deister. 2013. "Scientific approaches to the Mexican mestizo." Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos 20 (2):391-410.

López-Beltrán, Carlos, Vivette García-Deister, and Mariana Rios-Sandoval. 2014. "Negotiating the Mexican Mestizo: On the Possibility of a National Genomics." In Mestizo Genomics: Race Mixture, Nation, and Science in Latin America, edited by Peter Wade, Carlos López-Beltrán, Eduardo Restrepo and Ricardo Ventura-Santos, 85-106. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

M'charek, Amade. 2005. The Human Genome Diversity Project: An ethnography of scientific practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Miranda, Perla. 2017. "Lanzan prueba ue evalúa riesgo de diabetes." El Universal, 26 January 2017. Accessed 15 Octubre 2017. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/articulo/nacion/seguridad/2017/01/26/lanzan-prueba-que-evalua-riesgo-de-diabetes.

Mitchell, Robert, and Catherine Waldby. 2009. "National Biobanks: Clinical Labor, Risk Production, and the Creation of Biovalue." Science, Technology, & Human Values 35 (3):330-355. doi: 10.1177/0162243909340267.

Molina, Natalia. 2014. How race is made in America: Immigration, citizenship, and the historical power of racial scripts. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Montoya, Michael J. 2011. Making the Mexican diabetic: Race, science, and the genetics of inequality. Berkley: University of California Press.

Mora, G. Cristina. 2014. Making Hispanics: How activists, bureaucrats, and media constructed a new American. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Oboler, Suzanne. 2007. "Citizenship and Belonging: The Construction of US Latino Identity Today." Iberoamericana (2001-) 7 (25):115-127.

OECD. 2009. " The bioeconomy to 2030: Designing a policy agenda." https://www.oecd.org/futures/long-termtechnologicalsocietalchallenges/42837897.pdf.

Okamoto, Dina, and G. Cristina Mora. 2014. "Panethnicity." Annual Review of Sociology 40 (1):219-239. doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043201.

Pálsson, Gísli, and Paul Rabinow. 1999. "Iceland: The Case of a National Human Genome Project." Anthropology Today 15 (5):14-18. doi: 10.2307/2678370.

Panofsky, Aaron, and Catherine Bliss. 2017. "Ambiguity and Scientific Authority: Population Classification in Genomic Science." American Sociological Review 82 (1):59-87. doi: 10.1177/0003122416685812.

Patia Biopharma. 2014. "Desarrollo propio de Patia Biopharma: DIABETESPredict." accessed 15 March 2014. http://www.patia.com.mx/diabetes.html.

Petersen, Alan, and Ivan Krisjansen. 2015. "Assembling ‘the bioeconomy’: Exploiting the power of the promissory life sciences." Journal of Sociology 51 (1):28-46. doi: 10.1177/1440783314562314.

Pollock, Anne. 2012. Medicating race: Heart disease and durable preoccupations with difference. Durham: Duke University Press.

Rabinow, Paul. 1999. French DNA: Trouble in purgatory. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Reardon, Jenny. 2005. Race to the finish: Identity and governance in an age of genomics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Reardon, Jenny. 2017. The postgenomic condition: Ethics, justice, and knowledge after the genome. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Roberts, Dorothy. 2011. Fatal invention: How science, politics, and big business re-create race in the twenty-first century. New York: New Press.

Rodríguez, Clara E. 2000. Changing race: Latinos, the census, and the history of ethnicity in the United States. New York: New York University Press.

Roth, Wendy D. 2009. "‘Latino before the world’: The transnational extension of panethnicity." Ethnic and Racial Studies 32 (6):927-947. doi: 10.1080/01419870802245042.

Ruiz Jaimes, Elizabeth. 2014. Un “gen ahorrador” neandertal, detrás de la epidemia diabética. El Economista. Accessed October 1 2017.

Rumbaut, Rubén G. 2009. "Pigments of Our Imagination: On the Racialization and Racial Identities of “Hispanics” and “Latinos”." In How the United States racializes Latinos: White hegemony and its consequences, edited by José A. Cobas, Jorge Duany and Joe R. Feagin, 15-36. Boulder: Paradigm.

Santiago-Irizarry, Vilma. 2001. Medicalizing ethnicity: The construction of Latino identity in a psychiatric setting. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Schwartz-Marín, Ernesto, and Alberto Arellano Méndez. 2012. "The law of genomic sovereignty and the protection of "Mexican genetic patrimony"." Medicine and law 31 (2):283-294.

Secretaría de Gobernación. 2008. "Decreto por el que se reforma la fracción V del artículo 100 y el artículo 461, y se adicionan los artículos 317 Bis y 317 Bis 1, todos de la Ley General de Salud." Diario Oficial de la Federación. http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5053006&fecha=14/07/2008.

Séguin, Beatrice, and BIllie-Jo Hardy. 2008. "Genomic medicine and developing countries: creating a room of their own." Nature reviews. Genetics 9 (6):487-493. doi: 10.1038/nrg2379.

Séguin, Beatrice, Billie-Jo Hardy, Peter A. Singer, and Abdallah S. Daar. 2008. "Genomics, public health and developing countries: the case of the Mexican National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN)." Nature reviews. Genetics 9:S5-S9. doi: 10.1038/nrg2442.

Serrano-Perez-Grovas, A., J. C. Valdes-Olmedo, G. Soberon, and J. P. Laclette. 2001. "Development of the first Center for Genomic Medicine in Mexico." American journal of human genetics 69 (4):460.

Silva-Zolezzi, Irma, Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda, Jesus Estrada-Gil, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Lopez, Laura Uribe-Figueroa, Alejandra Contreras, Eros Balam-Ortiz, Laura del Bosque-Plata, David Velazquez-Fernandez, Cesar Lara, Rodrigo Goya, Enrique Hernandez-Lemus, Carlos Davila, Eduardo Barrientos, Santiago March, and Gerardo Jimenez-Sanchez. 2009. "Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (21):8611-8616. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0903045106.

Slabbert, M. Nöthling, and M. S. Pepper. 2010. "'A room of our own?' Legal lacunae regarding genomic sovereignty in South Africa." Tydskrif vir hedendaagse romeins-hollandse reg 73 (3):432-450.

Soo-Jin Lee, Sandra. 2005. "Racializing drug design: Implications if pharmacogenomics for health disparities." American journal of public health (1971) 95 (12):2133-2138.

Soo-Jin Lee, Sandra, Joanna Mountain, Barbara Koenig, Russ Altman, Melissa Brown, Albert Camarillo, Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Mildred Cho, Jennifer Eberhardt, Marcus Feldman, Richard Ford, Henry Greely, Roy King, Hazel Markus, Debra Satz, Matthew Snipp, Claude Steele, and Peter Underhill. 2008. "The ethics of characterizing difference: Guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics." Genome Biology 9 (7):404. doi: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-404.

Stern, Alexandra. 2003. "From mestizophilia to biotypology: Racialization and science in Mexico." In Race & nation in modern Latin America, edited by Nancy P. Appelbaum, Anne S. Macpherson and Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt, 187-210. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Stern, Alexandra. 2005. Eugenic nation: Faults and frontiers of better breeding in modern America. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sung, Wen-Ching. 2010. "Chinese DNA: Genomics and bionation." In Asian biotech: Ethics and communities of fate, edited by Aihwa Ong and Nancy N. Chen, 263-292. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Tekola-Ayele, F., and C. N. Rotimi. 2015. "Translational Genomics in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Opportunities and Challenges." Public Health Genomics 18 (4):242-247.

The Sigma Type 2 Diabetes Consortium. 2014a. "Association of a low-frequency variant in HNF1A with type 2 diabetes in a latino population." JAMA 311 (22):2305-2314. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.6511.

The Sigma Type 2 Diabetes Consortium. 2014b. "Sequence variants in SLC16A11 are a common risk factor for type 2 diabetes in Mexico." Nature 506 (7486):97-101. doi: 10.1038/nature12828.

Toche, Nelly. 2017. "Prueba genómica para evaluar diabetes." El Economista, 26 January 2017. Accessed 15 October 2017. https://www.eleconomista.com.mx/arteseideas/Prueba-genomica-para-evaluar-diabetes-20170126-0075.html.

Toche, Nelly, and Manuel Lino. 2014. "Localizan con genómica forma curable de diabetes." El Economista. http://aniversario.jornada.com.mx/ultimas/2013/12/26/descubre-sigma-nuevo-gen-que-contribuye-a-incrementar-el-riesgo-de-desarrollar-diabetes-6996.html.

Tupasela, Aaro. 2017. "Populations as brands in medical research: placing genes on the global genetic atlas." BioSocieties 12 (1):47-65. doi: 10.1057/s41292-016-0029-9.

Tutton, Richard. 2008. "Biobanks and the biopolitics of inclusion and representation." In Monitoring bodies: The new politics of biobanks, edited by H. Gottweis and A. Peterson, 159-176. London: Routledge.

Vanguardia. 2019. "Aeroméxico trolea a estadounidenses y se desata la polémica." https://vanguardia.com.mx/articulo/aeromexico-trolea-estadounidenses-y-se-desata-la-polemica.

Vasquez, Emily E., and Vivette García-Deister. 2019. "In pursuit of genomic justice: Sovereignty, inclusion, and innovation in Mexico." In Routledge Handbook on the Politics of Global Health, edited by Richard

G. Parker and Jonathan García, 421-432. London and New York: Routledge.

Ventura Santos, Ricardo, Michael Kent, and Verlan Valle Gaspar Neto. 2014. "From Degeneration to Meeting Point: Historical Views on Race, Mixture, and the Biological Diversity of the Brazilian Population." In Mestizo Genomics: Race Mixture, Nation, and Science in Latin America, edited by Peter Wade, Carlos López Beltrán, Eduardo Restrepo and Ricardo Ventura Santos, 33-54. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Wade, Peter, Vivette García-Deister, Michael Kent, María Fernanda

Olarte-Sierra, and Adriana Díaz del Castillo Hernández. 2014. "Nation and the Absent Presence of Race in Latin American Genomics." Current Anthropology 55 (5):497-522. doi: 10.1086/677945.

Wailoo, Keith, Alondra Nelson, and Catherine Lee, eds. 2012. Genetics and the unsettled past: The collision of DNA, race, and history. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Whitmarsh, Ian. 2008. Biomedical ambiguity race, asthma, and the contested meaning of genetic research in the Caribbean. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Whitmarsh, Ian. 2009. "Hyperdiagnostics: Postcolonial Utopics of Race-Based Biomedicine." Medical Anthropology 28 (3):285-315. doi: 10.1080/01459740903073554.

WHO. 2015. "WHO definitions of genetics and genomics."

http://www.who.int/genomics/geneticsVSgenomics/en/.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17351/ests2019.199



Copyright (c) 2019 Emily Elizabeth Vasquez, Vivette García Deister

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.